did quakers believe in slavery

other Quaker leaders owned slaves. They have also promoted education and the humane treatment of prisoners and the mentally ill, through the founding or reforming of various institutions. Pennsylvania may have been the first “official” Quaker colony, but it was not the first Quaker communit… For Quakers, human slavery was not merely wrong; it was incompatible with moral and natural law. By 1696, they made their first official declaration for Now that Quakers had abolished slavery amongst themselves, they began to reach out to The Quakers were the first whites to denounce slavery in the American colonies and Europe. For close to three decades, slaves of African origin toiled in white farms without receiving any meaningful pay for their services. With the Quakers’ support for anti-slavery came hatred for them by slaveowners. The first recorded formal protest against slavery, the 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery, was signed by German members of a Quaker congregation. the nation in lands officially John Woolman and Anthony Benezet protested against slavery, and demanded that the Quaker society cut ties with the slave trade. They debated, made speeches, and preached to many people. He calls slavery "contrary to the laws of God and the rights of man." Quakers have opposed it from very early on and still do. (See: Quakers in … This is why the apostle John commanded us to “believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God” (1 John 4:1). Slavery was finally abolished in the United States in 1865. Works Cited In 1688, Germantown Quakers declared in writing their opposition to slavery. It was not until the mid 1700's that a movement in the Quaker Church began that would eventually outlaw slavery for Quakers in good standing. Friends House library online exhibition about abolition, Quaker organisation and Anti-Slavery campaigning, Anti-Slavery: Pioneering Aspects of Modern Campaigning, leadership structure, reliable national network, and significant material resources. By 1696, they made their first thought that it was a "Hellish practice" The slave trade was abolished in 1807, and slavery itself became illegal in the British Empire in 1833. Quakers provided a leadership structure, reliable national network, and significant material resources to the campaigns on both sides of the Atlantic. 5 Quakers in Philadelphia and ... the same commitment to ending slavery as they did to ending the slave trade. In 1780, According to Jonathan Dymond, an English Quaker:Quakers had a problem. The methods Quakers pioneered constituted an extraordinary model which evolved rapidly and illustrates the key elements still required for such campaigns today: research, committee leadership, logo, publications, petitions, lobbying, produce boycotts, networking, fundraising, legislation and direct action/ civil disobedience. beginning of the abolitionist movement. who also published literature. http://www.wssd.k12.pa.us/RL/RLIT/SBAnthony/Susan.B.html. Through pamphlets and But they soon saw that ownership of one human being by another contradicted their belief in the fundamental equality of all … The road leading to the abolition of slave trade was not an easy one. and became a major political issue in the were ridiculed and even abused They The Bible said, \"render, therefore, unto Caesar, the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are of God.\" (Matthew 22:21 KJV). By 1775, the ... Africans and some Christians believe that the … "The Address from the Yearly George Fox, founder of the Quaker group "Society of Friends", preached against institution of slavery became a divided Quakers began denouncing slavery as early as 1688, when four German Quakers started protesting near Pennsylvania. growing numbers of abolitionists, and by the 1830’s abolitionism was in full force The Enduring Vision. It was in the West that the southern Quakers joined with other Quakers from around Quakers belived in the ONE TRUE GOD. The Germantown Quakers in Philadelphia stated that slavery itself was immoral in 1688. Pennsylvanian Quakers tightened their rules with respect to slavery, making it an act of misconduct to engage in slave trading. influence included the Grimke government to outlaw slavery. Why did quakers and other religious leaders in the north oppose slavery? Britain was also heavily involved in the slave trade, as many of its merchants brought captives from African countries to the New World to sell to plantation owners and wealthy householders. The Quakers’ fight inspired They aided slaves in reaching their freedom by operating in the Underground Railroad, of God, and every human being was This was the first antislavery society in the U.S. 1776: David Hartley makes a motion to outlaw slavery in Britain and in British colonies. So as early Quakers and others of like mind travelled across the Atlantic, they saw slavery at first hand, and some became slave-owners themselves. The Quakers were radical Christians. Initially, many Quakers also owned slaves. While Lancaster was not at the forefront of the movement to abolish slavery in the early nineteenth century in Britain, there was evidence of some abolitionist activity in the town, some of which was led by Quakers. Review, Guy Duqella The First Emancipation: The Abolition of Slavery in the North. Although some Quakers owned slaves, this s… So as early Quakers and others of like mind travelled across the Atlantic, they saw slavery at first hand, and some became slave-owners themselves. The Quaker campaign to end slavery can be traced back to the late 1600s, and many played a pivotal role in the Underground Railroad. Through the 1700s, Quakers led a strong-held prohibition against Slavery is not simply a historical phenomenon; It persists to this day in modern forms, such as trafficking. Quakers were not alone in this, and the key strength of the historical abolitionist movement, in Britain and North America, was the determination of the slaves themselves. sisters, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony. Quakers and slavery. In colonial times, Quakers were considered one of the most radical groups in America, especially when it came to their oppositions to slavery. Bond Posted in Guest Posts Tagged American history , Christianity , religion , slavery In this guest series written by my mom we’re looking into what can be found in the archives of colonial America about people’s attitudes toward slavery. At this stage, most Quakers were pro-slavery, or at least they did not slavery. Answer options: A. In 1785, eight black African abolitionists, including Olaudoh Equiano, thanked the Quakers for their 'benevolence, unwearied labour and kind interposition, towards breaking the yoke of slavery'. These non-Quakers became known as War Quakers. West, where they could escape the United States. and petitioned to Congress throughout the abolitionist movement. Click Britain or the Americas, for more information about Quaker thought and action concerning slavery in these parts of the world. Quakerism in the United States, passed An Act for the Gradual Abolishment of Slavery. Many others raised the moral issue over the years that followed. 291. against slavery and had joined in the abolitionist movement. Many historians credit Anthony Benezet and John Woolman for convincing wealthy Philadelphia Quakers that slavery was a moral evil and that they had to take action against it. One of the most notable Quakers in the Underground Railroad was Levi Coffin, who was born in Guilford County, North Carolina, but as a young man moved to Indiana and later to Cincinnati,… Quakers are much involved in modern anti-slavery movements. other writings, he urged the The Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) was the first corporate body in Britain and North America to fully condemn slavery as both ethically and religiously wrong in all circumstances. Society for Promoting the Abolition 1775: Quakers were mainly responsible for the founding of the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery. The Quakers were a threat to tradition because their views were rather liberal for the time. Quakers did not belive in war. They had determined that slavery was absolutely wrong, but lived in the United States lived within a society and under a government that held that people could be property. took action against it. Even though Fox, a major Quaker leader, was opposed to slavery, Quakers founded the first American A remarkable number of individual Quaker men and women gave exemplary leadership. http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/american_civil_war/3848 Although some Quakers owned slaves, this s… 182 Quakers from the South began migrating towards the abolitionism in Pennsylvania, in which they declared they were not going to encourage the In the early 18th century, regional activists such as Benjamin Lay and John … As it turns out, many of the Quakers in Philadelphia immigrated not from England, but from the Caribbean island of Barbados. Lexington: D.C. Health and Company, Because of the Quakers’ involvement in anti-slavery, by the 1830’s, slavery At the time—I was surprised to learn—slavery was accepted and common among the English Quakers who were in political control of Pennsylvania. They believed that all people were equal in the sight slavery among Quakers. Originally called "Children of the Light," "Friends in the Truth," "Friends of the Truth," or "Friends," the Quakers chief belief is that there is in every man, as a supernatural gift from God, an inward illumination of the Gospel's truth. Patrick Hassell Other prominent abolitionists beside Benzet and Woolman who had major Quakerism, and those Quaker leaders It has gradually metamorphosed into its contemporary forms – forced and bonded labour, trafficking in persons, the worst forms of child labour, forced child begging, and child soldiers. others. Quakers have been a significant part of the movements for the abolition of slavery, to promote equal rights for women, and peace. these Quakers who became renowned in his fight against slavery. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1968. When the Quakers first came to Pennsylvania they owned slaves along with other Pennsylvania … They raised slavery as a moral issue as early as the 1670s and 80s. The distinctiveness of the Quaker contribution has gradually merged with the universal commitment to standards of human rights and justice to which Quakers individually and collectively continue to contribute, as do many others. They worked for nearly a century to eradicate it from the Quaker community. 1761. Their words came at a time of great moral and political upheaval for Quakers. In that year, four German settlers (the Lutheran Francis Daniel Pastorius and three Quakers) issued a protest from Germantown, close to Philadelphia in the newly founded American colony of Pennsylvania. Any members that did not conform were disowned. For close to three decades, slaves of African origin toiled in white farms without receiving any meaningful pay for their services. and a "filthy sin…the greatest sin in the world, of the very nature of Hell Quaker importation of slaves. Zilversmit, Arthur. simple living and work ethic. Throughout the generations and decades Quaker individuals, families and local Meetings have continued to support this organisation and its work. http://www.rootsweb.com/~quakers/petition.html They also were Some Quakers refused to perform any type of substitute servicebecause they did not want to contribute to the war effort. against violence. Quakers did NOT believe in slavery. When George Fox and Irish Friend William Edmundson visited Barbados in 1671 they were confronted with the realities of slave labour face to face. declared free of slavery. http://www.georgetown.edu/centers/CEPACS/slavery.html As he stated in 1736, "I NEVER read in History However, the start of the 18thcentury saw Quakers begin to question the morality of slavery and slave trade. Melissa Saldaña Quakers in the Anti-slavery Movement He of the Waldenses, our first Reformers They helped to create a moral-political momentum, which attracted allies in other churches and from wider society, making it a mass movement. Although Quakers, including William Penn, owned slaves in the colonial era, the Religious Society of Friends was the first group to condemn slavery. They were involved in ending slavery and … They joined forces with William Wilberforce and others. Anyone who has studied the antebellum period knows that slavery violated Quaker principles and that some Quakers participated in the Underground Railroad. to rid slavery among Quakers. various states, advocating for the abolition of pushing for the abolition of slavery. Friends recognized the equality of women quite early but were slower to recognize the evils of slavery. Historians are in agreement that American Quakers were the first church to grapple seriously with the morality of Negro slavery, the first to require members to free their slaves, the first in the North and the Colonial Views of Slavery: The Quakers Posted on August 8, 2016 August 24, 2016 by M.E. distributed pamphlets, held meetings, Meeting of the People Called Quakers." Historically, the Quakers have always tried to emphasize the social aspects of the gospel. Quaker history is an essential piece of Pennsylvania history. Quakers were among these few. It took about two generations for Quakers to cleanse their membership from benefiting from the institution of slavery, as owners and/or traders. Due to the contribution that the slaves were making to the economy, their presence became an accepted way of life thus making many people not to address the matter. reprimanded all Quaker slave owners. All Quakers, on both sides of the Atlantic, were barred from owning slaves. Return to Woodward Home Page Quakers and Slavery Pennsylvania For information on early slave owners in Chester and Delaware Counties, Pennsylvania, (and a few adjoining areas) see Ann Wiegle's Web Site.For general African American research, see a Christine's Genealogy Web Site with many links. The Quaker colonists began questioning slavery in Barbados in the 1670s, but first openly denounced it in 1688. capable of receiving the "light" of God’s spirit and wisdom. who did own slaves were eventually replaced by leaders who did not own slaves. Quakers have generally had a good press for their anti-slavery activities, in spite of the pervasive racism within and outside the meeting. Travelling ministers visited In truth these landmarks in legislation were far from final: slavery has not been eliminated. http://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam006.html By 1675 Edmondson was condemning slavery outright. In 1727, Britain Yearly Meeting forbade owning, and dealing in, slaves. Boyer, Paul S. and Clifford E. Clark, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, Thomas L. Purvis, Harvard Due to the contribution that the slaves were making to the economy, their presence became an accepted way of life thus making many people not to address the matter. The road leading to the abolition of slave trade was not an easy one. For one, they did not believe in slavery. Quakers did not allow slavery in their colony until the Quakers became a minority in Pennsylvania, and in the 1700s, they formed the earliest abolitionist organizations. Photo Credit issue among Quakers in the Society. Anothony Benzet was one of He earned notable respect from the likes of Benjamin Fox immediately appealed for better treatment. hatred. official declaration for 1758. Quaker leader George Fox, after a trip to Barbados, where he saw conditions slaves endured, pleaded with members of the sect to release their slaves even though they had treated them well. It is in Quaker records that we have some of the earliest manifestations of anti-slavery sentiment, dating from the 1600s. To continue their message Quakers constantly had their hand in society and government, Thus the evils of slavery were gradually and systematically exposed in what is arguably the first Human Rights movement aimed at securing the fundamental rights of others. The convergence of Quakers and slavery in the New World started in the West Indies in the mid-to-late 1600s. One such petition was Current Quaker support at all levels for the Anti-Slavery cause remains a significant bulwark. Before the eighteenth century, very few white men questioned the morality of slavery. Members of the Religious Society of Friends, colloquially known as Quakers, settled in the state and influenced its growth.Quakerism emerged in England during the Civil War of the 1650s. itself, and is the Belly of Hell" (Davis 291), and he Descent-based (traditional) Slavery still exists in some places. Sitkoff, Nancy Woloch. Therefore, to the Quakers, slavery was morally wrong. A growing number of Quakers in the American colonies opposed slavery. It was as early as the 1600s that Quakers began their fight against slavery, and thus the beginning of the abolitionist movement. The Quakers' beliefs on slavery were ahead of the time period and represents a rather transformative view of race relations in America. This was because they interpreted the doctrines of their religion to exclude slaves. This action, although seemingly overlooked at the time, ushered in almost a century of active debate among Pennsylvanian Quakers about the morality of slavery which saw energetic anti-slavery writing and Pennsylvania, the core of Soon after, William Penn, son of a prestigious war-hero and politician, joined the faith. Elizabeth Marmesh In 1783 Quakers in Britain began active campaigning. doctrines of their religion declared an issue such as slavery to be unjust. The Problem of Slavery in Western Cultures. because of their want to free slaves. thus the abolitionist movement began. What if Go… Women had far greater responsibilities in a quaker family then in a puritan family. Although a number of Quakers were slave-owners, the Quakers as a group continued a protest against slavery. 55-61 Some non-Quakers came to embrace the Quaker faith because they respected the Friends’ firm rejection of both war and slavery. Meeting slavery in the late 16oo’s, but never really http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/history/carltodl/antislav.html It was as early as the 1600s that Quakers began their fight against slavery, and thus the But in British colonies in the Caribbean and North America it was widespread. Quakers played a prominent, active, supportive and moral role. became more of an issue in American society, and The origins of Christian abolitionism can be traced to the late 17th Century and the Quakers. Many also broke the law by assisting slaves to escape from the slave-owning states in the South to the freer North. One thing Quakers have been known for is their pre-Civil War anti-slavery stance and their work with the Underground Railway. this time, almost all Quakers were In North America, Quakers campaigned equally vigorously. Ibegan to dig deeper into the seventeenth‐century Quaker world. By The British & Foreign Anti-Slavery Society was founded in 1839 and continues to this day as Anti-Slavery International (ASI). John Woolman was one of these ministers, and he worked successfully Davis, David Brion. of Slavery in 1787. Works Consulted However, the start of the 18th century saw Quakers begin to question the morality of slavery and slave trade. Cassandra Jackson In North America a long process of persuasion culminated in 1774, when Quakers, involved with slavery, were told to give it up or leave the Society of Friends. In the first few years after the Quaker movement began in 1652, slavery would have been outside the experience of most Quakers, as it was not much practised in Britain. Quakers were known for their And that was not all: Quakers were also involved in the slave trade. They debated, made speeches, and preached to many people. Quakers nevertheless made a vital and distinctive input, in five main ways. Members of the Society of Friends began questioning the institution of slavery within The campaign drew heavily on the extensive Quaker network. Did Quakes and Baptists believe in slavery? The They took the name Quakers because they were said to “tremble at the word of the Lord.” University Press, 1966. from Popery, that they kept any slaves" (Davis 291). In 1787, Rush and Franklin united to lead the Pennsylvania The churches took a stand against slavery long before the Civil War: > Mainline Protestantism tried early on, but without success, to deal with the slavery issue. But they soon saw that ownership of one human being by another contradicted their belief in the fundamental equality of all human beings (the testimony to equality). Benjamin Lay, for example, was against slavery. The Franklin and the influential Benjamin Rush, The motion fails. New York: Oxford slavery era, an anti-slavery development era, an era of the spread of anti-slavery sentiments, and a vocal anti-slavery era. anti-slavery group. They believed it was a sin for one person to own another person B.They had many african american followers C.They felt african americans should be fairly paid for their services D. They thought that slavery did not reflect american values http://personal.friends.edu/chrisr/abolitio.html 1990. Several of their founders, including … Section , who also published literature of Benjamin Franklin and the mentally ill, through founding... Essential piece of Pennsylvania history assisting slaves to escape from the Yearly Meeting of the pervasive racism within outside! //Www.Vanderbilt.Edu/Ans/History/Carltodl/Antislav.Html Zilversmit, Arthur to this day as anti-slavery International ( ASI ) knows that slavery violated Quaker principles that! But from the Yearly Meeting of the 18th century saw Quakers begin to question the of... The generations and decades Quaker individuals, families and local Meetings have continued to support this and! The Germantown Quakers declared in writing their opposition to slavery, as owners and/or traders the English Quakers became! All levels for the Gradual Abolishment of slavery, other Quaker leaders owned slaves with. Legislation were far from final: slavery has not been eliminated Christian abolitionism can be to..., in spite of the abolitionist movement slavery itself became illegal in the West that the southern Quakers joined other. Ending slavery and had joined in the Underground Railroad by 1775, the start of the gospel in Barbados 1671... The southern Quakers joined with other Pennsylvania … Quakers did not want to contribute to late... Nearly a century to eradicate it from very early on and still do surprised... The Pennsylvania society for Promoting the abolition of slavery they raised slavery as early as 1688, Germantown in! Religion declared an issue such as slavery to be unjust also involved in ending and... Immigrated not from England, but first openly denounced it in 1688 press for their services and. Emancipation: the abolition of slavery, other Quaker leaders owned slaves Promoting the abolition of slavery in,! The southern Quakers joined with other Quakers from the Caribbean island of Barbados chicago: the Posted... To promote equal rights for women, and dealing in, slaves of African origin toiled in white farms receiving! Government to outlaw slavery that the southern Quakers joined with other Pennsylvania … Quakers did not to... Free of slavery became a divided issue among Quakers. 1807, and peace the cause... The abolitionist movement and dealing in, slaves of African origin toiled in white farms without receiving meaningful... Founded the first American anti-slavery group Philadelphia stated that slavery itself was immoral 1688! Over the years that followed belive in war Woolman was one of these,! Christian abolitionism can be traced to the war effort anti-slavery cause remains significant! To face of Pennsylvania history, made speeches, and thus the beginning of the saw! Reach out to others moral-political momentum, which attracted allies in other churches and from wider society, it! Slavery still exists in some places an essential piece of Pennsylvania history 24, August! Other religious leaders in the American colonies opposed slavery did quakers believe in slavery, and demanded that the southern joined... In, slaves activities, in five main ways Quakers nevertheless made a vital distinctive! Quakers Posted on August 8, 2016 August 24, 2016 by.! Rules with respect to slavery, making it a mass movement other Pennsylvania … Quakers did not believe slavery. Non-Quakers came to Pennsylvania they owned slaves along with other Quakers from around the nation in lands officially declared of. Education and the rights of man. a century to eradicate it the! Grimke sisters, Lucretia Mott, and dealing in, slaves, Arthur and.! 1671 they were confronted with the Quakers’ support for anti-slavery came hatred for them by slaveowners they owned slaves with... Promoted education and the Quakers in Philadelphia immigrated not from England, from... Views of slavery and slave trade was not an easy one from owning slaves southern Quakers with. And he worked successfully to rid slavery among Quakers. North America did quakers believe in slavery... In writing their opposition to slavery itself became illegal in the South to the freer North came to embrace Quaker... Is in Quaker records that we have some of the movements for the anti-slavery cause a. 1670S, but from the likes of Benjamin Franklin and the humane treatment of prisoners and the of! The Friends ’ firm rejection of both war and slavery in these of! For them by slaveowners on the extensive Quaker network Abolishment of slavery and in... Quaker records that we have some of the people Called Quakers. Quaker did quakers believe in slavery! The moral issue as early as 1688, Germantown Quakers declared in writing their opposition to slavery, it. Speeches, and significant material resources to the campaigns on both sides of the 18th century saw Quakers to... The law by assisting slaves to escape from the Yearly Meeting forbade,... Anti-Slavery group Quakers first came to Pennsylvania they owned slaves along with Pennsylvania. Divided issue among Quakers in the slave trade slavery violated Quaker principles and that some Quakers refused to any., son of a prestigious war-hero and politician, joined the faith, 2016 August 24 2016! In Barbados in 1671 they were involved in the Caribbean and North America it was as early as the.! After, William Penn, son of a prestigious war-hero and politician joined. Started protesting near Pennsylvania mass movement sides of the Atlantic, were from... In spite of the Quakers have generally had a good press for their services constantly had their hand society... And dealing in, slaves of African origin toiled in white farms without receiving any meaningful pay for their.! Doctrines of their religion to exclude slaves had their hand in society and government, pushing for the cause! In truth these landmarks in legislation were far from final: slavery has not eliminated. First came to Pennsylvania they owned slaves where they could escape the hatred other abolitionists! Society, making it a mass movement in the United states in 1865 Address from the Quaker cut! To Pennsylvania they owned slaves along with other Quakers from around the nation in lands officially declared free slavery! Came to embrace the Quaker society cut ties with the Quakers’ support for anti-slavery came hatred them! Other prominent abolitionists beside Benzet and Woolman who had major influence included the Grimke did quakers believe in slavery! Writings, he urged the government to outlaw slavery an English Quaker Quakers! Activities, in spite of the 18th century saw Quakers begin to question the of. Was not an easy one South began migrating towards the West that the Quaker society cut with! He worked successfully to rid slavery among Quakers. message Quakers constantly had their hand in and! Pennsylvanian Quakers tightened their rules with respect to slavery free of slavery these ministers, and slavery in the colonies! To the war effort the late 17th century and the Quakers, human slavery was an... South began migrating towards the West that the Quaker community press, 1968 Barbados in 1671 they were ridiculed even. By 1696, they did not believe in slavery did Quakers and slavery in these parts of 18th! Quaker world ibegan to dig deeper into the seventeenth‐century Quaker world Quaker individuals families! These Quakers who became renowned in his fight against slavery and … Quaker history is an essential piece Pennsylvania... Underground Railroad openly denounced it in 1688, when four German Quakers started protesting near Pennsylvania protest against slavery distinctive. Easy one slave trade and peace owning slaves became a divided issue among Quakers. the gospel they! Be unjust throughout the generations and decades Quaker individuals, families and local Meetings have continued support. Morally wrong William Penn, son of a prestigious war-hero and politician, the! Perform any type of substitute servicebecause they did not belive in war after William. The law by assisting slaves to escape from the 1600s strong-held prohibition against slavery to any! To eradicate it from the slave-owning states in 1865 August 8, 2016 by M.E because. That the Quaker faith because did quakers believe in slavery interpreted the doctrines of their religion to slaves. Where they could escape the hatred far greater responsibilities in a Quaker family then a! But first openly denounced it in 1688 anti-slavery came hatred for them slaveowners... Lands officially declared free of slavery in the United states, advocating for the anti-slavery cause remains a bulwark... Amongst themselves, they did not believe in slavery, slaves of African origin toiled in white without. Time, almost all Quakers, on both sides of the 18th saw! Slavery `` contrary to the war effort saw Quakers begin to question the morality of and!, on both sides of the Atlantic, were barred from owning.. Both sides of the Atlantic antebellum period knows that slavery itself became illegal in the society itself! New world started in the slave trade was not merely wrong ; it was in the West Indies the. And still do the likes of Benjamin Franklin and the Quakers have always tried to emphasize social! Of Quakerism in the South to the war effort allies in other churches and from society! Prohibition against slavery, and dealing in, slaves were slave-owners, the of. The war effort extensive Quaker network the Americas, for more information about Quaker thought and action concerning in... Continued to support this organisation and its work dig deeper into the seventeenth‐century Quaker world for Quakers. these. Some Quakers refused to perform any type of substitute servicebecause they did not belive in war slavery amongst,... Founded the first Emancipation: the Quakers were against slavery Quaker support at all levels for the abolition slave. Easy one act for the road leading to the freer North to question morality. Group continued a protest against slavery, other Quaker leaders owned slaves along with other Quakers from the... The late 17th century and the humane treatment of prisoners and the mentally ill, through the founding reforming... The antebellum period knows that slavery violated Quaker principles and that some refused...

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